DC fast chargers are one the fastest ways to charge PEVs. Such fast chargers are present in cities and on highways. They aim at making long-distance travel and quick refueling easy for electric vehicles. Due to the quick option of plug-in, we get the terminology of PEV or plug-in electric vehicles. Now it is important to see the working principle of such a term. However, it proceeds with the option of a plug. Here, one end of the car is plugged by an electrical chord. While the other end is plugged into some source of charging equipment. Basically, the charging equipment falls into three categories. These will be discussed as soon as the blog proceeds. However, we need to follow some of the below factors after these categories:
- The effect of temperature
- Different kinds of battery
- State of the battery
- Energy energy-storing capacity of a battery
How does DC charging work for electric vehicles?
Commonly we come across two different types of EV charging stations. Of first there is AC and the other one is DC. However, we should know the fact that the grid supplies the power that is in the form of AC. While the EV batteries function by making use of DC. Here, we come to know the fact that at some point we need to use the current that must be converted. The basic difference between AC and DC relates to the location of the power converter. Therefore, it is present onboard or offboard.
- With onboard location AC helps to deliver the current to a converter. It is named to be an AC/DC converter.
- Now let us have a look at the DC part. Here, the AC is converted first. It happens before reaching the vehicle. However, the work proceeds by transferring the direct current to the electric vehicle, especially its battery.
- Following the DC charging we follow a greater role of converter. Here, the converter is kept larger due to its location. Being offboard all of the responsibility lies on the converter. There is a fact that the current is already changed to DC before it reaches the vehicle. Due to this reason, it helps to provide more power with fast speed.
DC stations are therefore following the pattern of a different charging mechanism. Such charging stations provide maximum power of 350kW and speed is 15 minutes. With such a technique, DC fast chargers are a hub of many features. Some of these are Charging fleet vehicles, helping shortstop spots, and charging passenger transport.
Importance of electric vehicle DC fast car charger
Direct Battery Charging:
These fast chargers deliver electricity directly to the vehicle’s battery. This method ensures a swift and efficient energy transfer.
AC to DC Conversion:
The chargers perform a straightforward conversion of alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC) making the charging process seamless and efficient. The Electric Vehicles store the power in the form of Direct Current. However, AC is supplied by the electric grid. With the help of an onboard charger, AC is changed to DC. The direct current is therefore supplied to the battery of the electric vehicle. However, such conversion is so fast that it happens in the charging station even before electrons enter the vehicle. Some electric vehicle DC fast car chargers have a bypass feature that allows them to bypass the onboard converter (OBC) delivering DC power directly to the battery and charge the battery directly. However, it is because these chargers use a special type of converter called a bidirectional DC/DC converter. This converter can convert AC power directly to DC power at a very high voltage and current
- One of the important steps of such car chargers consists of fast charging. Here, the coverage of hundreds of miles is followed in only 30 minutes. Yet, such a process seems a bit expensive. But, we can avoid this too. Here, you need to follow the process of charging at your own home. All you need are the level 1 and 2 chargers. However, such a process is not only time-saving but is also cheaper in price
- Another useful thing is a fast rate of charging with higher capacity. It works in intervals. First, it gets slow and then becomes fast with a definite time range. However, such a method helps to save maximum time and capacity to 80%. It is therefore necessary to keep the percentage at least 80%. However, if the capacity falls below such range then it can be damaging for the battery. So, we need to set up the maximum range of capacity.
Types of electric vehicle chargers
With a non-electric vehicle, we don’t need to worry about chargers. All we need is either diesel, fuel, or gas. But, when it comes to electric vehicles you should consider the car chargers. Basically, there are two types of car chargers. One is AC while the other one is DC. With AC there are further subtypes. These follow two methods of slow and fast charging. However, with DC we follow a pattern of quick charging only.
Now with a discussion of an electric vehicle let us have a look at three of the following types:
AC chargers with Levels 1 and 2
DC chargers with Level 3
A level of slow charging
Such a level of charging depends upon slow charging. These are commonly used for households. But, this process seems comfortable as we charge at our home. Therefore, it is safe but charges at a comparatively slow rate.
Such kinds of chargers are commonly meant for the public. These are therefore present in shops, parks, supermarkets, plazas, and plazas. However, with such a type we can charge almost every type of electric vehicle.
Rapid type of charger
Due to the direct supply of current such chargers are the super fast type of chargers. Such chargers help with the conversion of AC current into direct current. With such chargers, we easily charge the EV up to 80%. However, the timing for full charging takes up to 1 hour.
With electric vehicles, we should consider two of the major things. One is charging time and the other is the type of charger. Here, we come across the fact that a hybrid vehicle may or may not need charging. But, for this, we need to consider types of vehicles. One is plug-in type while the other is regenerative.
Direct-current fast charger (DCFC)
The Direct Current Fast Chargers are a subset of Level 3 chargers. These chargers are the fastest and most powerful charging option, making them ideal for quick top-ups during long journeys. DCFCs convert AC power into DC, resulting in a rapid charging process. Many DCFCs are equipped to charge two electric vehicles simultaneously, making them convenient for busy charging stations.
In summary, understanding the various types of electric vehicle chargers and their capabilities is essential for EV owners and those considering the switch to electric mobility. With such chargers, we can easily charge two electric vehicles at a time.
Features of electric vehicle DC fast car chargers
Operational power of 50kw to 150kw
With such an operational power we get a fast charging system. Especially the operational power range helps to cover the maximum distance. However, if the operational power increases then such chargers become unable to perform in a better way.
Charging speed of approximately 100 to 200+ miles of range per 30 minutes of charging
With such speed, we come across the maximum coverage. However, such mileage helps to get quick charging in case of long distances. Therefore, following such chargers, we can easily charge our electric cars to the maximum distance.
Types of DC fast charging systems
SAE Combined Charging System (CCS)
The word SAE shows the Society of Automotive Engineers. Here, we come to know that this society has developed a combined charging system. Due to this thing, we get a combined name accordingly. CCS Type 1 or Type 2 Up to 1000 V Up to 500 A Up to 350 kW
The word CCS comes in the form of a combination. Both of these are made up of plugs and inlets. However, the CCS system uses both AC and DC power. It makes use of 2 combinations. Here, we come across the combination as below.
1.Here, we observe the presence of the SAE J1722 plug and 1-phase AC connection
2.The second combination of EU Style plug and 3-phase AC connection
Firstly the word CHAdeMO stands for charge de move. Therefore, it represents the phrase charge for moving. CHAdeMO Type 1 or Type 2 Up to 500 V Up to 400 A Up to 200 kW. Now let us discuss the work principle.
Such a charging system works by using DC Power. Here, the conversion of AC current in the charging point is also an important step. If you select the option of charging with a standard AC charger then the vehicle performs the necessary work by itself. There the rectifier is used which converts DC into AC. However, it is a fact that most of the time CHAdeMO system uses DC power only.
North American Charging Standard (NACS)
It is a DC fast car charging connector that is used by Tesla. One thing is certain that company like Mercedes has switched from combined chargers to NACS. However, the thing that matters to the most is their compact design but fast functionality. NACS Tesla Supercharger 400 V Up to 625 A Up to 250 kW. It works better for the batteries with an operating power of 400 volts. These are smaller in size as compared to other DC chargers. However, the charging rate is functional up to 250 kW.
Name of connector type
1 and 2 types
Up to 1000 V
Type 1 and 2
Till 500 V
What is the pricing for DC Fast Car Chargers?
The pricing of DC car chargers is comparatively more than AC car chargers. Here, the costs of equipment make the overall costs of DC chargers to be quite high. The typical cost of such a DC charger is $29,5000. There the charging rate is 200 miles per hour. However, there is also the presence of gateway versions. Such versions are quite cheap and range from $ 4000 to $7500. Now let us discuss the installation costs. With a level 2 DC car charger, the costs are $700-$1500. The home EV car chargers cost $300-$850. However, the installation costs are $350-$1600.
How much electricity does a car charger use?
Different models of cars operate by different mile ratings and different amounts of electricity. Suppose you drive an American system of car. Here, you will use 14000 miles per year with different mile ratings. So, this is how you will estimate the electricity use:
kWh per mile
Yearly based driving miles (14000 that will be the same for each year)
Driven miles per month
Role of Charging Speed in DC Fast Car Chargers
Charging speed has a valuable role in such chargers as it works by levels. These are named to be as Levels 1, 2, and 3. Level 3 is regarded as the fastest and quickest way of charging. However, this level depends on the duration and it follows minutes. Therefore, the average time range is 15 – 50 minutes. With such a representation we observe the fast duration of charging speed. However, it all depends upon the level that we are using.
Different EV battery sizes
Here, Different charging stations= 50, 100, 150, 240 and 300 kW
Battery sizes= 40, 65, and 90 kWh
What matters the most is the relation between different batteries and sizes of charging stations. Different charging stations need different durations to charge the batteries. But, the common percentage to charge is about 20%-80%. However, the output of different batteries varies on the basis of their sizes and models. With such a representation we observe the fast duration of charging speed. Hence, charging speed depends upon the battery size that we are using.
How does DC Fast Charging affect the battery?
With research, we come to know that DC Fast Charging affects the battery but this is quite minor. However, the effect of such charging is just 0.1%. It is therefore better to manage temperature than treating the battery itself. For example, Lithium-ion batteries cannot bear high temperatures. Therefore, modern EVs have temperature management systems that help to protect the battery while fast charging. It is a fact that EV batteries also age with time. While it is just about 2.2 % per year. It is not a major threat to the battery.
How many DC Fast Car Charging Stations are there in the US?
Before starting a discussion over that let us guide you through the fact that the data is up to November as of 2022. In accordance with the Alternative Fuels Data Centre, there are 56,256 EV Stations in different states of the US. Of these, 52,375 are for public, and 3816 are private. However, 4284 of these stations are out of order. These stations help to cover 147,700 individual charging ports.
Yet, the charging time varies from certain minutes to hours but it depends accordingly. Likewise, the level 1 charger are 2% and charge at a rate of 5 miles per hour. In the same way, the level 2 chargers are 79%. These charge at a rate of 25 miles per hour. Above all the DC fast chargers are 18.5% in number. Their mile rate is 100 to 200 or more per mile. Anyhow till 2022 the DC Fast car chargers have been found to be the best quality EV fast car chargers
Compatibility with different EV models
It is a fact that all the EV models do not work better with all of the chargers. There are three types of EV charging connectors.
We use this connector for DC fast charging. It has already been discussed. However, it is most common in Japan and in other countries as well
Mennekes type 2
Such a connector is quite popular in Europe. It is equally important for level 1 and level 2 charging.
We mostly find this out in North America and Japan. But the thing that matters the most is its use for both levels of charging.
Apart from connector type the EV chargers and models have the difference of current and charging capacity. You need to be fully aware while selecting your charger with the model. However, there are two ways to check the compatibility.
They help you select your model and match the relevant EV charger accordingly
Such services make it easy for you to find the best compatibility for your charger and model
Let us discuss some of the EV models with their competent connectors:
- Connector with charging | Model of EV
- Model no. J1772, Tesla Supercharger/ Model 3 of Tesla
- J1772, CCS/ Bolt EV of Chevrolet
- CCS, J1772/ Model of Ford Mustang
- CHAdeMO, CCS, J1772/ Model of Hyundai Ionic 5
Model of Kia EV6/ Combination of CHAdeMO, CCS, J1772
Frequently Asked Questions
With such an article we get valuable insight into DC fast chargers. There the explanation with different types helps to create a better understanding. Moreover, the discussion with features works to create a useful reading for the users of electric vehicles. All of the key concepts have been explained clearly therefore this acts as a useful study for DC fast car chargers.